Understanding CATS & CARS
Listed below are summaries of the most significant changes between editions:
Due to changes in the 9th Amendment to Part 61, the most significant update in this edition is to Licensing. These changes mainly affect the Instrument Rating section.
It is important to note that the changes applicable to the Instrument Rating written examination will only be implemented middle 2016. This was indicated by the Testing Standards Officers during the DFE conference, February 2016.
Other minor updates include various alterations to the content and the addition of explanatory notes and practical recommendations.
The CAA published amendments to the CARs during 2013 and 2014. The applicable changes to Parts 61, 91, 93, 121 and 135 up to March 2014 have been included in this edition.
The highlights are summarised below:
- Requirements regarding the selection of alternate aerodromes have been amended.
- Planning minima for enroute and destination alternates changed.
- A requirement has been added that Final reserve fuel values needs to be worked to figures that can easily be recalled.
- The book now includes sections detailing the requirements for ACAS and GNSS.
- The requirement to use a complex aeroplane for the Initial CPL Skills test has been removed and is now a requirement for revalidations.
- Requirements for revalidation have been specified for pilots flying PICUS.
The First, Second, Third and Fourth Amendments of the Civil Aviation Regulations, 2011, have been promulgated by publication in the Government Gazette effective 30 July 2013. All applicable changes have been incorporated into this edition. A number of additional sections and errata corrections have been included. The highlights are summarised below:
- Requirements to operate with NO alternate for Parts 91, 135 & 121 operation have been included.
- Declaring MINIMUM FUEL or MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY FUEL to ATC.
- Part 91 now also includes the same minimum fuel requirements as Part 121 and 135.
- Correction to the definition of MSA.
- Regulations regarding Terrain awareness and warning systems have been included.
- The requirement to comply with the initial requirements for the issue of a license once it had expired for more than 60 months have been deleted and the requirements for revalidation if the license expired by more than 36 months apply.
- The requirement to prove English language proficiency with each application for issue or revalidation has been added to all licenses.
- A requirement for training before the revalidation of an ATPL in case of the pilot not having flown a certain amount in the previous 6 months has been added.
There have been major changes in the August 2012 publication of the CATS and CARs. All applicable changes have been incorporated in the existing sections but here follows a list as an overview:
- Assumed engine failure height concept has been deleted and the requirements for single-engine and light twin-engine aeroplanes in IMC have been stipulated.
- Take off alternate distance requirements for ETOPS certified aeroplanes have been added.
- The requirements for operation with no destination alternate have been expanded.
- The Approach ban has been amended slightly.
- The description of Contingency fuel has changed.
- Extra fuel is now called Discretionary fuel.
- Fuel requirements for non-commercial flights have been described separately.
- The description of Parts 121 and 135 was changed and therefore the aircraft included in each Part.
- The requirements for Commercial and Non-commercial operations have been described separately.
- The Lost communication procedures have been aligned with ICAO procedures.
- Flight time limits have seen slight amendments.
- PPL Skills test, Recency and Revalidation have been amended.
- CPL Examinations, Recency and Revalidation have been amended.
- ATP Initial license requirements, Recency and Revalidation have been amended.
- IR Recency and Revalidation have been amended.
- Type and Class ratings – MCC training requirements have changed.
- Logging of flight time – Logging of PIC time has been amended.
Due to extensive changes to the CATS and CARs made in August 2012, the 2011 and 2012 editions are obsolete. Please take care not to study from these as they are no longer valid.